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Заедничка Акција за Одржлива Иднина
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The Drin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis

 Read the Drin TDA Summary here ENGPDF icon

Read the Drin TDA Summary in the languages of Albania and Kosovo here, North Macedonia here and Montenegro here PDF icon

Read the Drin TDA here PDF icon

Read the Drin Ecological flows report here PDF icon

Please contact in case you would like to be sent any of the following TDA Thematic Reports: (i) Socio-economics; (ii) Institutional and Legal Setting; (iii) Biodiversity and Ecosystems; (iv) Hydrology and Hydrogeology; (v) Pollution and Water Quality; (vi) Nexus**


The identification of four priority transboundary problems

The Drin Transboundary Diagnostics Analysis (TDA) provided necessary information that enabled the Drin Riparians to discuss and identify four priority transboundary problems each one exacerbated by the impacts of climate variability and change:

A Causal Chain Analysis (CCA) done as part of the TDA, allowed the identification of the causes of the transboundary problems. The CCA has informed the development of the Drin Strategic Action Programme that included management actions to address these causes.

In addition, the TDA assisted in enhancing the knowledge basis of the Drin Riparians regarding the state of the natural and anthropogenic environment in the basin and developing the building blocks of a Drin Basin Management Plan in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive, should the Riparians decide to develop such a plan in the future.

Developing the Drin TDA

The Drin TDA followed GEF best practice on TDA development. The development and drafting process of the TDA was carried out between July 2016 and December 2018.

To analyse the system, the source-to-sea approach* was followed, to the extent allowed by the information available on transitional waters and the marine area. The boundaries of the system to be analysed was defined considering the natural characteristics and local conditions; the area consisted of the natural elements comprising the catchment, aquifers, transitional waters, coastal waters and the coastal zone/marine area.

The 'Situation Analysis: Management of the Extended Drin Basin' (Drin Situation Analysis) served as a starting point for the Drin TDA.

The TDA was the core document, that synthesized the findings of basin-wide Thematic Reports:

  • Thematic Report on Socio-economics
  • Thematic Report on Institutional and Legal Setting
  • Thematic Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystems
  • Thematic Report on Hydrology and Hydrogeology
  • Thematic Report on Pollution and Water Quality
  • Thematic Report on the Nexus**

The TDA document and the associated thematic reports are 'living documents' that will be periodically revised and are intended to serve as a baseline against which future progress is measured.

Stakeholders engagement in the development of the TDA

A Stakeholders Analysis was used to map stakeholders, analyse their characteristics and capture their views regarding the issues impacting the basin.

Stakeholders are those that understand the Drin Basin system best and those that will work on the ground for addressing the transboundary problems. Their knowledge was factored in the Drin TDA. Their involvement -see the table bellow- secured a high level of ownership.

Stakeholders Engagement in the development of the TDA 





Project life

All Drin Riparians

DCG and EWG meetings / twice per year

The TDA table of contents was adopted. At each consecutive meeting, TDA development progress was discussed, specific thematic reports were presented to the DCG/EWG members and the reports were reviewed/approved.

Project life

All Drin Riparians

Individual meetings with representatives of the relevant institutions: Ministers, Directors of Departments, Heads of Agencies, etc.

Introduction of the project (the TDA was part of introduction), investigation of opportunities for cooperation; presentation of developments; receiving guidance on issues related to the development of the TDA ensuring compatibility with national priorities, especially the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive.

Oct– Nov 2016

Six cities covering all Drin sub-basins

Focus Group meetings

Among others: identified the perceived key management issues and problems at the sub-basin and basin levels as well as their causes and impacts from the stakeholders’ perspective.

Mar 2017


Meeting with Riparian experts from all Drin Riparians

Coordination and preparation of the thematic reports.

Nov 2017


Stakeholders Conference

The stakeholders were presented with key findings from the process of developing the thematic reports on the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) and provided input. Focus was placed on socio-economic, biodiversity and institutional and legal setting thematic reports as well as the main findings of the TDA and the Casual Chain Analysis.

Nov 2018


Stakeholders Conference

The stakeholders were presented with key findings from the process of developing the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) and provided input. Focus was placed on pollution and hydrology thematic reports as well as the main findings of the TDA and the Casual Chain Analysis.

Dec 2018


CCA-SAP Workshop

Local and International experts participated in the preparation of the Thematic Reports, reviewed the Casual Chain Analysis and prepared a first set of interventions to address the transboundary issues identified.



* A source-to-sea approach consolidates analysis, planning, policymaking, and decision-making across sectors and scales. It considers the entire social, ecological and economic system, from the land area that is drained by a river system to the coastal area and even the open ocean it flows into. A source-to-sea system includes the land area that is drained by a river system or systems, its lakes and tributaries (the river basin), connected aquifers and downstream recipients including deltas and estuaries, coastlines and near-shore waters, the adjoining sea and continental shelf as well as the open ocean. Water, sediment, pollutants, biota, materials and ecosystem services key flows, connect the sub-systems in the source-to-sea continuum and their geographies.

** The nexus assessment/approach looks into the interlinkages and trade-offs among the sectors of water, land, energy and environment aiming to identify solutions that will foster not only water and environment security, but also energy and food security. In other words, the nexus assessment has no bias towards a specific sector and is multi-centric by definition.



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